بررسی اثرات مداخلات دولتی بر عملکرد نوآورانه بنگاه‌ها:مطالعه موردی شرکت-های دانش‌بنیان حوزه فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات

نوع مقاله: مدیریت تولید و عملیات(نوآوری -تحقیق و توسعه -زنجیره تامین -زنجیره اززش -بهره وری)

نویسندگان

1 استادگروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور، تهران، ایران

3 استادیارگروه فنی و مهندسی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران، ایران

10.22080/jem.2020.18463.3167

چکیده

مشوق­های مالی و مالیاتی به عنوان یکی از ابزارهای مهم و متداول سیاستی در ایجاد نوآوری در بنگاه­های خصوصی در نظر گرفته می­شوند. در اغلب کشورها برنامه مدونی برای ارزیابی اثربخشی این سیاست‌ها در سطح بنگاه وجود دارد و از طریق شاخص‌ها و روش‌های مختلف این ارزیابی­ها صورت می‌گیرد. بر اساس قانون حمایت از شرکت­های دانش­بنیان، این شرکت­ها­ می­توانند از معافیت مالیات بر فروش به مدت 15 سال و تسهیلات کم بهره برای توسعه فناوری و تجاری­سازی بهره­مند ­شوند. هدف این مطالعه بررسی اثربخشی این ابزارهای حمایتی، بر عملکرد بنگاه­های کوچک دانش­بنیان در دسته فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات می­باشد. اثر افزونگی ورودی و خروجی این حمایت­ها از طریق بررسی تغییرات در نیروی­انسانی تحقیق و توسعه، محصول جدید و فروش، قبل و بعد از دریافت ترکیب‌های مختلف از ابزارهای سیاستی در شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان کوچک (کمتر از 50 نفر) تحلیل خواهد شد. در این پژوهش برای تحلیل اثرات مستقیم و متقابل میان ابزارهای سیاستی از روش کمی "طرح عاملی 22" استفاده شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان‌دهنده تاثیر معنادار تسهیلات بر افزایش نیروی انسانی تحقیق و توسعه و وجود اثر متقابل میان تسهیلات و معافیت مالیاتی بر افزایش محصولات جدید است. بنابراین می­توان نتیجه گرفت اگر چه شرکت­های دانش­بنیان از این مشوق­ها در جهت افزایش نیروی انسانی تحقیق و توسعه و تولید محصول جدید بهره گرفته­اند، اما در فروش این محصولات در بازار چندان موفق نبوده­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effects of Government Interventions on the Firms' Innovative Performance: A Case Study of Knowledge-Based ICT Companies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 1
  • Zahra Mohammad Hashemi 2
  • Mehdi Sajadifar 3
1 Information Technology Management Department,, Faculty of Management & Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Engineering Department,, Faculty of Technical & Engineering, University of Science & Culture, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Financial and tax incentives are considered as one of the most important and effective tools for countries to innovate in private enterprises. In order to analyze this hypothesis, the financial facilities and tax exemptions under the law for supporting knowledge-based firms will be considered and its impact on the performance of small knowledge-based firms in the ICT category will be evaluated. The Iranian “Knowledge-based Institutions” Act certifies selected high-tech firms as “knowledge-based” firms and offers them policy incentives (e.g. a fifteen-year sales tax exemption and low-interest financing for technology development and commercialization). With the approval of the law for supporting knowledge-based firms in 2010, a new wave in Iran’s science, technology and innovation system began with a focus on the knowledge-based economy and innovation-based. The impact of input and output additionality on these supports will be analyzed by examining changes in R&D manpower, new product, and sales of knowledge-based firms, before and after receiving different combinations of policy tools in Small-sized knowledge-based firms (with fewer than 50 employees). The 2k Factorial Design approach has been used to evaluate the impact of policies and the interaction of tools. The results show that the significant effect of facilities on R&D employees and the interaction effect of facilities and tax exemptions on new products. Therefore, it can be concluded that although the knowledge-based firms have been able to use the incentives to increase the R&D manpower and produce new products, they have not been very successful in selling these products in the market.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge-Based firms
  • R&D employee
  • New Product Sales
  • Additionality effect
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